Referenced Articles (*data-based)

  1. *Happ, M.B., Tate, J., Garrett, K. (2006). Nonspeaking older adults in the ICU. (Nursing Counts feature). American Journal of Nursing, 106(5), 37.
  2. Happ, M.B., Sereika, S. Garrett, K., Tate, J.A. (2008). Use of quasi-experimental sequential cohort design in the Study of Patient-Nurse Effectiveness with Assisted Communication Strategies (SPEACS). Contemporary Clinical Trials, 29: 801-808. available online at: [PMCID: PMC2664866]
  3. Broyles L, Tate J, Happ MB. (2008). Video recording in clinical research: Mapping the ethical terrain. Nursing Research. 57(1): 59-63.
  4. Happ, MB, Paull B. (2008). Silence is not golden. Geriatric Nursing, 29(3):166-8.
  5. Haidat, K.K., Tate, J., DiVirgilio-Thomas,D., Kolanowski, A., Happ, M.B. (2009). Methods to improve reliability of video-recorded behavioral data. Research in Nursing & Health, 32:465-74.
  6. Patak, L., Wilson-Stronks, A., Costello, J., Kleinpell, R.M., Henneman, E.A., Person, C., Happ, M.B. (2009). Improving patient-provider communication: a call to action. Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(9):372-6.
  7. Happ, M.B., Baumann, B.M., Sawicki, J., Tate, J.A., George, E.L., Barnato, A.E. (2010). SPEACS-2: intensive care unit "communication rounds" with speech language pathology. Geriatric Nursing, 31(3), 170-7.
  8. *Radtke, J.V., Baumann, B.P., Garrett, K.L., Tate, J.A., Happ, M.B. (2011). Listening to the Voiceless Patient: Case Reports in Assisted Communication in the ICU. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 14(6):791-5. [PubMed in Process]
  9. *Happ MB, Sereika S, Garrett KL, DiVirgilio Thomas, D., Tate JA, George,E, Houze M., Radtke JV. (2011). Nurse-patient communication interactions in the ICU, American Journal of Critical Care, 20(2):e28-40.
  10. *Broyles, L.M., Tate, J.A., Happ, M.B. (2012). Use of augmentative and alternative communication by family members in the ICU. American Journal of Critical Care. 21(2):e21-e32. [PubMed in process]
  11. *Radtke JV, Tate JA, Happ MB (2012). Nurses perceptions of communication training in the ICU. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing. 28(1):16-25. [PubMed in Process]
  12. Nilsen M, Sereika S, Happ MB. (2013). Nurse and patient characteristics associated with duration of nurse talk during patient encounters in ICU. Heart and Lung, 42(1):5-12. PMCID: PMC3543772
  13. Tate JA, Sereika S, Divirgilio D, Nilsen M, Demirci J, Campbell G, Happ MB. (2013). Symptom communication during critical illness: The impact of age, delirium, and delirium presentation. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 39(8): 28-38. PMCID: PMC4006194
  14. Happ MB, Garrett KL, Tate JA, Divirgilio D, Houze MP, Demirci JR, George E, Sereika SM. (2014). Effect of a multi-level intervention on nurse-patient communication in the intensive care unit: Results of the SPEACS trial. Heart and Lung, 43 (2):89-98. PMCID: PMC4053558
  15. Nilsen ML, Happ MB, Hoffman LA, Donovan H, Barnato AB, Sereika S. (2014). Adaptation of a Communication Interaction Behavior instrument for use in mechanically ventilated, non-speaking older adults. Nursing Research, 63 (1): 3-13. [PMCID: PMC4006953]
  16. Nilsen ML, Sereika S, Hoffman LA, Barnato AB, Donovan H, Happ MB. (2014). Nurse and patient interaction behaviors effects on nursing care quality for mechanically ventilated, older adults in the ICU. Research in Gerontological Nursing, 7(3), 113-125. [PMCID: PMC4040337]
  17. Happ MB, Seaman JB, Nilsen ML, Sciulli A, Tate JA, Saul M, Barnato AE. (2015). The number of mechanically ventilated ICU patients meeting communication criteria. Heart Lung. 2015;44(1): 45-9. PMCID: PMC4053558
  18. Happ MB, Sereika SM, Houze MP, Seaman JB, Tate, JA, Nilsen ML, van Panhuis J, Scuilli A, Paull B, George E, Angus DC, Barnato AE. (2015). Quality of care and resource use among mechanically ventilated patients before and after and intervention to assist nurse-nonvocal patient communication. Heart Lung; 44 (5):408-415.

Published Abstracts

  1. Tate, J., Happ, M.B., Garrett, K., Coyne, B., DiVirgilio-Thomas, D. (2005). Observational measures of neuro-cognitive status: Methodologic considerations. The Gerontologist, 45(Special Issue II), 126-127.
  2. Garrett K (presenter), Paull B (co-presenter), Happ MB. (September, 2007). Content of an Instructional AAC Program for ICU Nurses Clinical AAC Conference, Lexington, KY.
  3. *Tate, J.A., Sereika, S., Lu, X., Radtke, J., Garrett, K.L., Happ, M.B. (2008). Delirium and age as a co-variate with older ICU patients. The Gerontologist (Special Issue III):Session 54.
  4. *Happ, M.B., Garrett, K.L. (presenter), Sereika, S., DiVirgilio-Thomas, D., Tate,J., George, E. (2009, October) Changes in ICU Communication Following Nurse Education and AAC Interventions. 2009 Clinical AAC Research Conference, Pittsburgh, PA.
  5. *Happ, M., Sereika, S., Garrett, K.L., Tate, J.A., DiVirgilio Thomas, D., George, E., Radtke, J., Houze, M.P. (2010) Study of Patient-Nurse Effectiveness with Assisted Communication Strategies (SPEACS) in the ICU. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 181: A4018.
  6. Radtke, J., Campbell, G., Happ, M.B. (2010, March). Measuring the Nurse-Patient Communication event in the ICU: Contribution of Qualitative Event Analysis Techniques. Eastern Nursing Research Society 22nd Annual Scientific Sessions. Providence, R.I.
  7. Tate JA, Newtz C, Ali A, Happ MB. (2017). StudentSPEACS (Study of Patient-Nurse Effectiveness with Assisted Communication Strategies) in the classroom. Nursing Outlook, 65: 133. [Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science podium abstract of distinction]

Book Chapters and Other publications

  1. Garrett KL, Happ MB, Costello J, & Fried-Oken M. (2007). AAC in Intensive Care Units. In D.R. Beukelman, KL Garrett & KM Yorkston (Eds). Augmentative Communication Strategies for Adults with Acute or Chronic Medical Conditions. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.
  2. Nilsen M, Paull B, Tate J, Happ M. (2007). Assessing mechanically ventilated elderly adults in the ICU for augmentative and alternative communication strategies. The Gerontologist, 47 (Special Issue I), 639.
  3. Nilsen M & Happ MB. (2008). Communication enhancement with nonspeaking patients. In B. Ackley, G. Ladwig, B.A. Swan & S. Tucker (Eds). A clinical guide to evidence- based nursing practice. Philadelphia: Mosby/ Elsevier Science.
  4. Kleinpell, R.M., Patak, L.,Wilson-Stronks, A., Costello, J., Person, C., Henneman, E.A., Happ, M.B. (2009). Communication in the ICU. Advance for Nurses. Available on-line at
  5. Radtke, J., Nilsen, M., Happ MB. (2009). Case Study: Mrs Moore - module 7. Best Practices for Elder Care Course. American Association of Critical Care Nurses on-line
  6. Barnato AE (presenter), Happ, MB. (2011, Sept 29). SPEACS-2. Primer on the stepped wedge cluster randomized trial design. INQRI video on YouTube.
  7. Tate JA, Seaman JB, Happ MB. (2012). Overcoming barriers to pain assessment: communicating pain information with intubated older adults Geriatric Nursing. Jul;33(4):310-3
  8. Cerantola C, Happ MB. (2012). Transitional care for communication impaired older adults: ICU to home. Geriatric Nursing; 33(6):489-92.
  9. Downey, D., Happ, M.B. (2013). The Need for Nurse Training to Promote Improved Patient-Provider Communication for Patients with Complex Communication Needs. Perspectives on Augmentative and Alternative Communication.
  10. Hurtig, R., Nilsen, M., Happ, M.B. , Blackstone, SW. (2015). Adult acute and intensive care in hospitals (Chapt 6, pp 139-186). In SarahW. Blackstone, David R. Beukelman, Kathryn M. Yorkston (Eds). Patient-Provider Communication, San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing
  11. Happ MB, Nilsen M, Tate JA. (2015). Strategies for communicating with mechanically ventilated patients. In Michele Balas, Terry Clemmer, Ken Hargett (Eds). ICU Liberation Handbook. Society for Critical Care Medicine.
  12. Happ, MB. (2016). The Power and Importance of Accommodation for Communication Impairment in ICU. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 13(8):1215-6 (invited editorial).
  13. Happ MB. (2017, Sept) Giving voice to the voiceless: Improving communication with critically ill patients. NINR Directors Lecture. National Institute of Nursing Research, Bethesda, MD available at